Presented data are the outcome of the Continuous Vocational Education Survey 2020.
The survey has shown that a share of enterprises with some form of vocational training was 48.2%. A size of the enterprise has proved to be an important factor in providing the training. Thus, the data show that 84.6% of large enterprises provided some form of education for employees, while only 43.2% of small enterprises did the same. As for the activity categories, most of the vocational training was performed in the NKD 2007 sections J and K, which include information and communication activities as well as financial and insurance activities (74.7%).
In enterprises with some form of education, there were 64.6% of enterprises that provided continuous vocational courses. Fewer share of enterprises (35.4%) provided only other forms of training, with no courses offered.
Graph 1. shows various types of other forms of training and their presence in regards of activity group and size of the enterprise. The graph indicates that the size of the enterprise is an important factor in relation to preference of the training form. Small enterprises, in comparison with large enterprises, visibly participate more in other forms of the training, primarily in attendance in workshops, conferences and trade fares as well as in guided on-the-job training.
Out of a total number of employees in enterprises, 24.2% of them participated in CVT courses. The share of men was 55.0% and the share of women was 45.0%. The greatest difference between sexes regarding the attendance of courses was recorded in small enterprises, while participation of men and women in large enterprises was almost the same.
The smallest number of hours per course participant was spent in trade, transport and accommodation activities (15) and the largest number of hours per course participant was spent in sections which include information and communication activities as well as financial and insurance activities (34).
The highest cost per course hour is present in small enterprises (234.4 kuna per hour).
1 TOTAL NUMBER OF ENTERPRISES AND ENTERPRISES CONDUCTING CONTINUOUS VOCATIONAL TRAINING, ACCORDING TO NKD 2007. ACTIVITY SECTIONS AND SIZE OF ENTERPRISE, 2020
2 TRAINING ENTERPRISES, BY TYPE OF TRAINING, NKD 2007. SECTIONS AND SIZE OF ENTERPRISE, 2020
3 TOTAL NUMBER OF PERSONS EMPLOYED IN ENTERPRISES, NUMBER OF CVT COURSE PARTICIPANTS, ACCORDING TO NKD 2007. AND SHARE OF MALE AND FEMALE EMPLOYEES, 2020
4 CVT COURSE PARTICIPANTS, AVERAGE NUMBER OF HOURS IN CVT COURSE PER PARTICIPANT AND COST OF CVT COURSE, ACCORDING TO NKD 2007. PER HOUR, 2020
Data are the outcome of the Continuous Vocational Training Survey 2020, which was carried out on the sample of 4 000 enterprises – legal entities and natural persons. The survey was carried out in the Croatian Bureau of Statistics and is completely harmonised with the Continuous Vocational Training Survey 2020, which is conducted every five years in the European Union under the same title.
Coverage and comparability
The survey was conducted on the sample of 4 000 enterprises according to Eurostat methodological guidelines.
A basic set for the statistical survey on vocational training in enterprises in 2020 was extracted from the Statistical Business Register of the Croatian Bureau of Statistics, which contains data on the number of employees in 2020 from the JOPPD form. The set contained 14 269 enterprises stratified according to three criteria: NUTS spatial units for statistics, size of the enterprise and the National Classification of Activities – NKD 2007.
NUTS spatial units for statistics are:
Size of enterprises are:
10 – 49 employees – small enterprises
50 – 249 employees – medium-sized enterprises
250 + employees – large enterprises.
NKD 2007. activity sections included in the sample:
|Section B:||Mining and quarrying (divisions 05 – 09)|
|Section C:||Manufacturing (divisions 10 – 33)|
|Section D:||Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply (division 35)|
|Section E:||Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities (divisions 36 – 39)|
|Section F:||Construction (divisions 41 – 43)|
|Section G:||Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (divisions 45 – 47)|
|Section H:||Transportation and storage (divisions 49 – 53)|
|Section I:||Accommodation and food service activities (divisions 55 – 56)|
|Section J:||Information and communication (divisions 58 – 63)|
|Section K:||Financial and insurance activities (divisions 64 – 66)|
|Section L:||Real estate activities (division 68)|
|Section M:||Professional, scientific and technical activities (divisions 69 – 75)|
|Section N:||Administrative and support service activities (divisions 77 – 82)|
|Section R:||Arts, entertainment and recreation (divisions 90 – 93)|
|Section S:||Other service activities (divisions 94 – 96).|
The size of the sample was defined by allocation in a way that more enterprises were chosen within strata having a higher standard deviation and a larger population and fewer of them were chosen from the strata having a smaller standard deviation that contained fewer enterprises. An additional condition was that a minimum of 25 enterprises had to be chosen from each stratum wherever possible. The final sample contained 4 000 enterprises and included all large enterprises – 420 of them.
The response rate of enterprises that filled in the questionnaire was 61.1%.
The statistical classification of activities used in this survey was the National Classification of Activities – NKD 2007.
The following table shows estimates, standard estimation errors, confidence intervals (95%) and variation coefficients for main variables by size and activity.
ESTIMATES AND INDICATORS OF PRECISION MEASURES FOR THE CORE VARIABLES, BY COMPANY SIZE AND BY NKD 2007. SECTIONS
Definitions and explanations
Enterprise is an organisational entirety of the smallest legal units that produces goods or services and holds autonomy in decision-making.
Continuing vocational training (CVT) in enterprises is a form of education that has as its primary objective the acquisition of new competences or the development and improvement of the existing ones, which must be financed at least partly by the enterprises for their persons employed. Activities of vocational training must be planned in advance and must be organised, with the special goal of learning. Random learning and any unplanned learning that lack a specific goal are explicitly excluded from the continuous training. Apprentices, i.e. persons employed holding an apprenticeship or training contract are not taken into consideration for CVT.
Continuing vocational training courses are a type of training characterised by high degree of organisation (time, place and content are determined) performed by a trainer/lecturer or training institution with a content designed to a group of learners. It is typically clearly separated from the active workplace, i.e. training is organised at training places, in classrooms or training centres.
Other forms of CVT are forms of CVT usually connected to the active work and the active workplace, but they can also include participation (instruction) in conferences, trade fairs etc. for the purpose of learning. These other forms are often characterised by a degree of self-organisation (time, space and content) by the individual learner or a group of learners. The content is often tailored according to the learners’ individual needs in the workplace.
The following types of other forms of CVT are identified:
- planned training through guided-on-the-job training
- planned training through job rotation, exchanges, secondments or study visits
- planned training through participation (instruction received) in conferences, workshops, trade fairs and lectures
- planned training through participation in learning or quality circles
- planned training through self-directed learning/e-learning.
Costs of continuous vocational training include:
- fees and payments for courses
- travel and subsistence payments
- labour costs of internal trainers for CVT courses
- costs for training centre or training premises of the enterprise in which CVT courses take place and costs for teaching materials for CVT courses
- costs of contributions made by the enterprise to collective funding arrangements through government and intermediary organisations.
|CVT||continuous vocational training|
|Eurostat||Statistical Office of the European Union|
|JOPPD||Report on income, income tax and surtax as well as contributions for mandatory insurances|
|NKD 2007.||National Classification of Activities, 2007. version|
|NUTS||common clasification of territorial units for statistics|
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