In 2021, public prosecutor's offices in the Republic of Croatia decided upon crime reports for 1 000 juvenile perpetrators of criminal offences, which was 7.3% less than in 2020. The number of accused persons decreased by 0.3% and the number of perpetrators to whom criminal penalties or other measures were pronounced decreased by 1.5%, as compared to the previous year.
The number of juveniles to whom criminal penalties or other measures were pronounced amounted to 264 in 2021. Out of that number, 227 were educational measures, that is, 85.9%. When pronouncing criminal penalties or other measures, juveniles are divided into older and younger juveniles. Compared to the previous year, the number of convicted older juveniles (185) increased by 1.1% and the number of convicted younger juveniles (79) decreased by 7.1%.
There were 3 juvenile imprisonment sentences (a decrease of 57.1%) and 34 suspended juvenile imprisonment sentences (a decrease of 17.1%) pronounced to older juveniles.
The largest number of perpetrators was recorded with regard to criminal offences against property, that is, there were 554 crime reports (55.4%) and 140 accusations (47.1%).
1 JUVENILE PERPETRATORS OF CRIMINAL OFFENCES – REPORTED, ACCUSED AND CONVICTED
2 DECISIONS OF PUBLIC PROSECUTOR’S OFFICES, BY TYPES OF CRIMINAL OFFENCES, 2021
3 COURTS’ DECISIONS AND PENALTIES OR OTHER MEASURES, BY TYPES OF CRIMINAL OFFENCES, 2021
Source and methods of data collection
On the basis of the Official Statistics Act (NN, No. 25/20), data on criminal offences of reported, accused and convicted juvenile persons are collected by regular statistical surveys which use the following statistical reports: the Statistical Report for a Juvenile against Whom Criminal Proceedings Based on Crime Report and the Interlocutory Proceedings Have Been Concluded (SK-3 form) and the Statistical Report for a Juvenile against Whom a Criminal Proceedings Have Been Validly Concluded through a Senate (SK-4 form).
Statistical reports are filled in by competent public prosecutor’s offices after the final decision has taken place as well as county and municipal courts of first instance that act after the criminal procedure was validly concluded. Observation units are juvenile perpetrators of criminal offences who can be either direct perpetrators, accomplices, instigators or assistants.
On 1 January 2013, the new Penal Code (NN, Nos 125/11, 144/12, 56/15, 61/15 – correction, 101/17, 118/18, 126/19 and 84/21) entered into force. This Code, besides implementing new and modified existing general institutes of material criminal law, prescribes a new catalogue of criminal offences.
Statistical surveys cover all juvenile perpetrators of criminal offences, whether reported, accused or convicted, in order to examine the volume and spread of crime for the whole territory of the Republic of Croatia.
Crime in terms of statistical surveys ranges from reporting a criminal offence to the valid conclusion of the legal proceedings by a public prosecutors’ office, that is, to pronouncing a valid decision of a juvenile court.
Juvenile perpetrator of criminal offences is a person who turned 14 but not yet 18 at the time of committing the criminal offence, against whom legal proceedings have not been initiated (crime report dropped), interlocutory proceedings have been terminated or a proposal for a criminal penalty or other measure has been filed. Legal proceedings have been validly concluded by issuing the decision on termination of proceedings or pronouncing of criminal penalty or other measure.
Younger juvenile is a person who turned 14 but not yet 16 at the time of committing a criminal offence and who may not be sentenced to juvenile imprisonment but may only be given educational measures.
Older juvenile is a person who turned 16 but not yet 18 at the time of committing a criminal offence and who may be given educational measures, but may also be sentenced to juvenile imprisonment, if the Code foresees any conditions for that.
Reported person is a juvenile perpetrator of a criminal offence against whom the legal proceedings based on the crime report and interlocutory proceedings have been concluded.
Accused person is a juvenile person against whom legal proceedings have been concluded with a valid court decision, by which the legal proceedings were terminated or a criminal penalty or other measure has been pronounced (juvenile imprisonment or educational measures).
Convicted person is a juvenile perpetrator of the criminal offence against whom criminal penalties or other measures have been pronounced: juvenile imprisonment, suspension of juvenile imprisonment or educational measures. Educational measures may comprise reprimand, special obligations, increased care and supervision, increased care and supervision with daily stay in correctional institution, commitment to a centre for disciplinary development, commitment to correctional institution, commitment to the rehabilitation centre and commitment to special correctional institution.
After coming into force of the new Juvenile Courts Act (NN, Nos 84/11, 143/12, 148/13, 56/15 and 126/19), the earlier educational measure of commitment to a disciplinary centre is no longer implemented. At the same time, a new educational measure, called commitment to a centre for disciplinary development, was introduced.
|NN||Narodne novine, official gazette of the Republic of Croatia|
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