First Release

Year: LIX.
Zagreb, 15 December 2022

ISSN 1334-0557


On 15 December 2022, Eurostat publishes data on gross domestic product (GDP) and actual individual consumption (AIC) per capita for 2021, expressed in the purchasing power standard (PPS).


The Croatian Bureau of Statistics participates in the European comparison programme together with the statistical offices of other European countries with the aim of internationally comparing the volume of all categories of final consumption of GDP of all countries participating in the project.

The most recent analyses of purchasing power parities (PPPs) and related economic indicators (GDP and AIC) per capita are presented for the period 2019 ‒ 2021, focusing on the latest reference year.

The results of the European comparison programme of prices and GDP show that GDP per capita in the Republic of Croatia expressed in the purchasing power standard for 2021 amounted to 70% of the average of 27 EU Member States, while AIC per capita in the same year amounted to 72% of the EU-27 average.

 Luxembourg, country with the highest GDP expressed in PPS

Among the EU Member States, the highest GDP per capita in PPS was recorded in Luxembourg and its level was more than two and a half times above the EU-27 average, amounting to 268% of the EU-27 average, while Bulgaria had the lowest GDP level, amounting to 57% of the EU-27 average.

The highest level of GDP per capita in Luxembourg is partly due to the large share of cross-border workers in the total employment. Although cross-border workers contribute to GDP, they are not taken into consideration as part of the resident population that is included in the calculation of GDP per capita.

While GDP per capita is mainly used as an indicator of a country’s level of welfare, it is not the only such indicator. AIC per capita is an alternative indicator better adapted to describe the material welfare situation of households. Generally, it is a more homogeneous category than the level of GDP, but there are still substantial differences across the Member States.

AIC is the lowest in Albania

AIC per capita in PPS among the EU Member States in 2021 ranged from 35% below the EU-27 average in Bulgaria to 44% above the EU-27 average in Luxembourg.

In addition to Luxembourg, the highest AIC per capita in PPS was recorded in Germany, Denmark, Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, Finland, Sweden and France, ranging between 10% and 20% above the EU-27 average.

Italy, Lithuania, Cyprus, Ireland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Spain, Poland, Romania, Portugal, Malta and Estonia constitute a group of countries whose level of AIC per capita was below the EU-27 average, ranging from 2% to 20%.

The lowest level of AIC per capita was recorded in the group of countries consisting of Latvia, Greece, Croatia, Slovakia, Hungary and Bulgaria, whose average was between 24% and 35% below the EU-27 average.

In addition to 27 EU Member States, the analysis includes three EFTA Member States (Norway, Iceland and Switzerland), the EU Candidate Countries (Turkey, Montenegro, Serbia, North Macedonia and Albania) and an EU Potential Candidate Country (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

In 2021, in EFTA countries, AIC ranged between 19% and 26% above the EU-27 average, in Candidate Countries it ranged between 31% and 61% below the EU-27 average, while in the Potential Candidate Country it amounted to 59% below the EU-27 average.



            Volume indices (EU-27 = 100)
Countries1) AIC per capita GDP per capita
2019 2020 2021 2019 2020 2021
EU-27 100 100 100 100 100 100
EA-19 106 105 104 106 105 105
EU Member States            
Luxembourg 146 141 144 251 261 268
Germany 122 124 120 121 123 120
Denmark 115 120 119 126 133 133
Austria 117 116 117 126 125 123
Belgium 114 114 116 118 119 120
Netherlands 113 115 115 127 130 130
Finland 111 114 112 109 114 112
Sweden 109 111 111 119 122 123
France 109 110 111 106 104 104
Italy 100 97 98 97 94 95
Lithuania 93 95 97 84 88 89
Cyprus 97 97 95 93 90 91
Ireland 94 88 88 189 205 219
Slovenia 83 82 85 89 89 90
Czech Republic 85 85 85 93 93 92
Spain 91 84 85 91 83 83
Poland 80 83 84 73 76 77
Romania 78 81 84 70 73 74
Portugal 86 84 84 79 76 75
Malta 86 82 83 103 97 100
Estonia 76 79 80 82 86 89
Latvia 71 73 76 69 72 72
Greece 77 74 75 66 62 64
Croatia 67 68 72 67 65 70
Slovakia 70 72 71 71 72 69
Hungary 67 70 70 73 75 75
Bulgaria 58 60 65 53 55 57
United Kingdom2) 113 107 - 104 100 -
EFTA Member States            
Norway 128 127 126 147 142 167
Iceland 114 119 119 126 119 119
Switzerland 123 122 119 153 154 155
EU Candidate Countries            
Turkey 65 66 69 59 61 63
Montenegro 60 59 60 50 45 48
Serbia 49 51 53 41 43 44
North Macedonia 43 43 51 38 38 42
Albania 38 39 39 30 31 32
EU Potential Candidate Country            
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) 41 41 41 32 33 33

1) Countries are ranked according to AIC per capita in 2021. Countries with the same value are ranked by protocol order.
2) As of 1 February 2020, the United Kingdom has orderly ceased to be an EU Member State. Therefore, data referring to the United Kingdom are presented separately, and only for 2019 and 2020.




Data sources

The data on PPP, GDP in PPS, volume indices and population figures are published on the Eurostat website under the domain National Accounts (including GDP), collection Annual national accounts, as well as in Eurostat database (Tables by themes, Economy and finance, National accounts (including GDP), Annual national accounts, GDP per capita in PPPs).

Eurostat also publishes PPPs and derived indicators on the website Statistics Explained (Economy and finance, Comparative price levels (PPPs)).

Definitions and explanations

PPPs are indicators of differences in price levels across countries. They indicate how much currency units cost a certain amount of goods and services in different countries. PPPs can be used as currency conversion rates to convert expenditures denominated in national currencies into artificial common currency (PPS), thus eliminating the effect of price differentials in individual countries.

PPS is an artificial reference currency unit that eliminates differences in the price levels among countries. Thus, one PPS buys the same amount of goods and services in all countries. That unit allows a comparison of the volume of economic indicators across countries. Aggregates expressed in PPS are derived by dividing the aggregates in current prices denominated in the national currency by the respective PPP.

PPP and GDP in PPS are the results of a multilateral statistical survey. Its specific feature compared to other statistical surveys is that the results are calculated by the international coordinator. Specifically, none of the participating countries can produce the results independently. The second specific feature is inter-dependency of the results among countries. A change in the data of one country does not influence only the results of this country, but influences, more or less, the results of the other countries as well.

The results are based on the latest GDP data for 2021 and the most recent PPPs available.

PPPs are used to generate the price and volume indices that are needed for economic research and analyses that include the comparisons of GDP and GDP expenditure across countries. Volume indices are used to compare the size of the economy and the level of material well-being of economies, consumption, investment, government spending and overall productivity. Price indices are used to compare price levels, price structures, price convergence and competitiveness.

In addition to research and analysis, PPPs and real expenditures derived from PPPs are used for statistical calculation. International organisations aggregate real GDP and its components across countries to produce totals for groups of countries, such as the European Union or the OECD. International organisations also use country shares in all totals as weights when economic indicators, such as price indices or growth rates, are combined to obtain averages for country groups.

PPPs are also used for administrative purposes. The European Commission uses the PPP when allocating Structural Funds to Member States. Structural funds have been set up to reduce economic disparities between Member States. The main indicator that determines whether a region can apply for funding from the Structural Funds is the regional BPD per capita within the country, which is deflated by the use of PPPs. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) uses the PPPs when deciding on its members' quota. The country's quota determines, among other things, the financial resources that the country is obliged to pay to the IMF.

Geographical information

The European Union (EU-27) includes Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, the Czech Republic, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Croatia, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Hungary, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland and Sweden.

The euro area (EA-19) consists of Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia and Finland.

Legal basis

- Regulation (EC) No. 1445/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2007 establishing common rules for the provision of basic information on Purchasing Power Parities and for their calculation and dissemination

- Commission Regulation (EU) No. 2015/1163 of 15 July 2015 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 1445/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the list of basic headings used for Purchasing Power Parities


EC European Community
EFTA European Free Trade Association
EU European Union
Eurostat Statistical Office of the European Union
OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
-  no occurrence



Published by the Croatian Bureau of Statistics, Zagreb, Ilica 3, P. O. B. 80
Phone: (+385 1) 48 06 111
Press corner:

Persons responsible:
Suzana Šamec, Director of Macroeconomic Statistics Directorate
Lidija Brković, Director General

Prepared by:
Suzana Čajkušić and Mirjana Lepušić


Customer Relations and Data Protection Department

Information and user requests
Phone: (+385 1) 48 06 138, 48 06 154

Phone: (+385 1) 48 06 115

Accesibility settings