The survey results showed that the share of households equipped with ICT in the Republic of Croatia is at last year’s level. The share of households with personal computer remained unchanged, while the share of households with internet access increased by 1%. The share of households with mobile broadband internet access significantly increased, by 13% compared to 2020.
Out of the total number of surveyed households, 14% did not have internet access. The survey results showed that the most common reason was the lack of a need for it and insufficient knowledge to use the internet. A significant share of respondents highlighted the cost of services and equipment being too high as an important reason for not having internet access.
The distribution of computer users among age groups did not change significantly compared to the previous year, although the number of users decreased by 4%. The youngest population still maintained the lead in computer usage and the number of users was decreasing proportionally with age. A similar trend was noticed in the employment status structure, where pupils and students, as the youngest group, were the most frequent computer users.
An increase was noticed in almost all age groups of internet users compared to the previous year. The highest increase was recorded in the 65 – 74 age group, i.e. 10% compared to the previous year. As expected, the youngest population still maintained the lead in internet usage and the number of users was decreasing proportionally with age. A similar trend was noticed in the employment status structure, where pupils and students, as the youngest group, were the most frequent internet users.
The comparison of the results with data from the previous year showed that habits have not changed much. Individuals mostly used the internet for sending messages (93%), obtaining information on goods and services (91%), reading daily news and magazines (90%), using e-mail (80%), telephone and video calls (76%), participating in social networks (75%) and for obtaining information on health (74%).
The survey results showed that commerce via the internet has not increased. There were 46% of internet users who purchased goods and services via the internet, which is the same compared to the previous year. Buyers' habits show that the most often bought items were clothes and shoes, films and music, telecommunication services, cosmetics, books and magazines with consumer electronics and household appliances.
Measuring the frequency and value spent on internet purchases, it can be seen that 62% of internet buyers had 1 – 5 purchases, while 72% of buyers spent up to 2 000 kuna.
We have investigated the reasons why 54% of internet users do not buy goods or services over the internet. The majority emphasised that they prefer to shop in stores in person. A significant share emphasised that they have a concern about fraud or abuse during payment and the high cost of delivery of goods. The remaining stated reasons were insignificantly represented.
The purpose of the statistical survey
Data shown in this First Release are estimates obtained through the IKT-DOM Survey. This is an annual survey on the usage of information and communication technologies (ICT) in households and by individuals. It provides information on computer and information literacy of the Croatian population. This survey measures the usage of computers and other information and communication technologies as well as the number of persons in the Republic of Croatia who use the internet and for what purposes. The data are an important source for conducting policies in the field of information society in the Republic of Croatia as well as in the European Union.
The IKT-DOM Survey was conducted in 2021 according to Eurostat guidelines and on the basis of the Official Statistics Act (NN, No. 25/20). The same surveys were conducted in all EU Member States and, therefore, data are internationally comparable. The international data are available on the following web site address: Digital economy and society https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Digital_economy_and_society.
Concepts and definitions used in the Survey are in line with the EU Methodology for Statistics on the Information Society, 2021, especially with Regulation (EC) No. 808/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning Community statistics on the information society.
The observation units are persons aged 16 to 74 and their households. Selected persons answer the questionnaire. In case of their absence, another household member can answer instead, but on behalf of the selected person.
All questions in the survey refer to the period of three months prior to the beginning of the survey.
Sampling frame and size
The basis for the sampling frame is the 2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings of the Republic of Croatia and phone directories of phone companies. The sample size was 5 497 persons aged 16 to 74 at the time of data collection.
Data collection method
The data were collected by computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) and via the internet by using the online questionnaire (CAWI).
Out of the total sample size (5 497 units), 5 385 units were eligible and 3 233 persons took part in the survey. It means that the response rate was 60% and the eligibility rate was 98%. The non-response rate was 40%.
Weighting calculates an unbiased estimate and achieves representativeness of the sample for the whole population. The survey data refer to persons and households and therefore two weights were calculated:
– the weight for individuals and
– the household weight.
The RIM weighting procedure (iterative proportional fitting – IPF) was used for the grossing-up of individuals. Variables used for the grossing-up were the following: county, settlement size, sex, age and educational attainment level.
The RIM weighting procedure was used for the grossing-up of households as well. The extrapolation weight was calculated for each household that participated in the survey and the calculation method included the county, settlement size and the level of urbanization.
The calculated weight for individuals was extended to the whole population of persons aged 16 to 74. On 31 December 2020, there were 3 047 722 people aged 16 to 74 in the Republic of Croatia.
The calculated household weight is extended to the whole population of households, that is, to households with at least one person aged 16 to 74. On 31 December 2020, there were 1 285 823 households with at least one person aged 16 to 74.
Definitions and explanations
Broadband are technologies or connections that enable rapid transmission of data, especially films, games, video-conferences over an internet network (e.g. ADSL, cable connection, UMTS, optical connection, VDSL, leased lines).
E-commerce means buying or ordering goods and services over the internet. Typed e-mails are not considered e-commerce.
ICT (Information and Communication Technology) are software and hardware used for data communication (e.g. computer, fax, the internet, fixed mobile phone).
Internet is a worldwide network of computers, communicating on the basis of standard internet protocols that enable users to exchange textual and audio-visual information.
UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) is also known as 3G technology which was designed as a successor to GSM. It enables users to transmit images, video, high volume of data through a wireless connection and access the internet.
Education is divided as follows:
|ADSL||Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line|
|Eurostat||Statistical Office of the European Communities|
|NN||Narodne novine, official gazette of the Republic of Croatia|
|GSM||Global System for Mobile Communications|
|USB||Universal Serial Bus|
|VDSL||Very-High-Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line|
The survey whose data is published in this release has been conducted with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the Croatian Bureau of Statistics and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union.
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Dubravka Rogić-Hadžalić, Director of Demographic and Social Statistics Directorate
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